The Turkish Language originated in The Altai Mountain Range in Northern Siberia centuries ago. For this reason, it is called an Altaic Language. As nomads expanded further into Asia Minor, they brought their language with them to Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and other countries. Many of these languages are mutually intelligible although local usage and vocabulary, spelling and alphabet may differ. However, they all exhibit the same grammatical structure of agglutination and vowel harmony.
Turkish being a language emanating from Central Asia, is spoken from the borders of Greece into the hinterland of Western China. While the Ottoman Empire flourished Turkish was spoken from Vienna to Arabia, Egypt and Northern Africa. The Turkish vocabulary contains many words from Arabic, Persian and European languages. These imported words mostly follow the basic grammar and vowel harmony of native Turkish.
In Turkish word meanings are changed by fixing other words on to the root as direct suffixes.
These little important words show motion towards/motion from or static location of the suffixed word.
The suffixes change their spelling according to set rules and they must follow the same vowel pattern Vowel Harmony as the word to which they are being added. Sometimes they also have a consonant change Consonant Mutation for ease of pronunciation.
Those added to the stem of a verb may indicate its positive or negative form. Suffixes are then added for tense and person.
Further moods may, might, can, can’t, must can be added on to the original verb root, thus producing a new verb.
Nouns are suffixed with possessor and the motion or location words are then added.
There is no definite article “the” as a subject, but there is a specifier “the” as a direct object suffix.
There are no gender forms (no “le” or “la” as in French) in Turkish. One single word is used for “he, she, it”
As in English, adjectives describe their noun and remain in their basic form; there being is no gender thus agreement is required.
The sentence form is SOV Subject, Object, Verb.
The Turkish grammar is not looked on by the Turks themselves as a Classical Structured Language. They have their own grammar rules which are not based on the Classical System as those in Latin or Greek.
The Turkish Alphabet: Consists of twenty-one consonants and eight vowels. The Turkish alphabet is phonetic as each letter always retains it own sound. In English the sound of the letters can change, as the letter a does in fat, fate, fare etc. In Turkish there is no such pronunciation change to letters of the alphabet.
The Adjectives: Adjectives and adjectival phrases precede their noun and do not agree in number.
Vowel Harmony: Turkish has eight vowels, four pairs (A-E, I-İ, O-Ö, U-Ü) with corresponding front/back, and rounded/unrounded sounds, which form the basis for vowel harmony. According to vowel harmony rules, vowels of suffixes must have the same properties as the vowel in the last syllable: either front/back or rounded/unrounded.
Consonant Mutation: In certain circumstances changes are made to the spelling of consonants. If the pronunciation of a consonant changes the spelling also changes to reflect this.
Agglutination: [a “gluing together” – combining simple words to express compound ideas.] Agglutination in Turkish takes the form of suffixes attached to the end of a word, whether noun or verb. Suffixes add to the word’s meaning and/or mark its grammatical function. (i.e. ev – house evlerden – from the houses)
The Absence of Gender: Turkish does not have a definite article, nor does it have gender pronouns. A single word signifies he, she, it.
Verbs: Always come at the end of the sentence. Sentence construction follows the subject-object-verb pattern.
The Structure of Turkish: Differs in both grammatical structure and vocabulary from the Indo European Group, English, Spanish, French etc.